Catatan Yesus

Penjelasan

  1. Meier menulis bahwa tahun kelahiran Yesus adalah kr. tahun 7 atau 6 SM.[1] Rahner menyatakan bahwa konsensus di kalangan sejarawan adalah kr. tahun 4 SM.[2] Sanders juga cenderung setuju dengan kr. 4 SM, mengacu pada konsensus umum.[3] Finegan menggunakan studi dari tradisi Kristen awal untuk mendukung pendapat bahwa tahun kelahiran Yesus adalah kr. 3 atau 2 SM.[4]
  2. Sebagian besar akademisi memperkirakan tahun 30 atau 33 M sebagai tahun penyaliban Yesus.[6]
  3. James Dunn menulis bahwa pembaptisan dan penyaliban Yesus disepakati hampir secara universal dan "menempati peringkat yang sedemikian tinggi pada skala yang 'hampir mustahil untuk diragukan atau disangkal' dalam fakta-fakta sejarah" sehingga seringkali menjadi titik awal bagi penelitian Yesus historis.[7] Bart Ehrman menyatakan bahwa penyaliban Yesus atas perintah Pontius Pilatus merupakan elemen yang paling pasti terkait Yesus.[8] John Dominic Crossan dan Richard G. Watts menyatakan bahwa penyaliban Yesus jelas sebagaimana fakta sejarah lainnya.[9] Paul R. Eddy dan Gregory A. Boyd mengatakan bahwa konfirmasi tentang penyaliban Yesus dari kalangan non-Kristen sekarang telah "ditetapkan dengan tegas".[10]
  4. Menurut tradisi, kaum Kristen meyakini bahwa Maria mengandung putranya secara ajaib melalui Roh Kudus. Kaum Muslim meyakini bahwa ia mengandung putranya secara ajaib melalui perintah Allah. Dari pandangan-pandangan ini, Yusuf berperan sebagai ayah angkat.
  5. Perjanjian Baru mencatat berbagai nama dan gelar Yesus.
  6. Dalam sebuah ulasan tahun 2011 tentang status keilmuan modern, Bart Ehrman menuliskan, "Dia tentu ada, karena hampir semua akademisi antikuitas yang kompeten menyetujuinya, baik dari kalangan Kristen ataupun non-Kristen."[13] Richard A. Burridge menyatakan: "Ada yang berpendapat bahwa Yesus adalah suatu khayalan dari imajinasi Gereja, bahwa Yesus sama sekali tidak pernah ada. Saya harus mengatakan bahwa saya tidak tahu apa ada akademisi kritis yang dihormati yang mengatakan hal itu lagi."[14] Robert M. Price tidak percaya bahwa Yesus ada, tetapi setuju bahwa perspektif ini bertentangan dengan pandangan kebanyakan akademisi.[15] James D.G. Dunn menyebut teori-teori noneksistensi Yesus sebagai "suatu tesis yang sepenuhnya mati".[16] Michael Grant (seorang ahli klasika) menulis pada tahun 1977, "Dalam beberapa tahun terakhir, 'tidak ada akademisi yang serius telah berkelana untuk mendalilkan nonhistorisitas Yesus' atau pada tingkat yang sangat sedikit, dan mereka belum berhasil melepaskan bukti yang jauh lebih kuat—yang memang sangat banyak—untuk sebaliknya."[17] Robert E. Van Voorst menyatakan bahwa para akademisi biblika dan sejarawan klasik menganggap teori-teori noneksistensi Yesus telah secara efektif disanggah.[18]
  7. Artikel ini menggunakan kutipan-kutipan dari Alkitab versi Terjemahan Baru.
  8. Sebagai contoh, John P. Meier menyatakan bahwa tahun kelahiran Yesus kr. 7/6 SM,[1] sementara Finegan merasa kr. 3/2 SM lebih tepat.[4]
  9. Dalam Perjanjian Baru, Yesus dideskripsikan sebagai orang Yahudi / Yudea (Ioudaios sebagaimana ditulis dalam bahasa Yunani Koine) pada tiga peristiwa: oleh orang-orang Majus dalam Matius 2, yang menyebut Yesus sebagai "Raja orang Yahudi" (basileus ton ioudaion); oleh perempuan Samaria di sumur Yakub dan Yesus sendiri dalam Yohanes 4; dan (dalam keempat Injil) selama Kisah Sengsara, yang juga menggunakan frasa "Raja orang Yahudi".[319]
  10. Setelah Zaman Apostolik, terdapat perdebatan sengit dan seringkali dipolitisasi dalam Gereja mula-mula seputar banyak isu terkait. Kristologi merupakan fokus utama perdebatan ini, dan dibahas dalam masing-masing dari tujuh Konsili Ekumenis pertama.
  11. Tulisan Flavius Josephus (sekitar 5 tahun kemudian, kr. 75 Masehi) dalam The Jewish War (Buku VII 1.1) menyatakan bahwa Yerusalem telah diratakan hingga "tidak meninggalkan apapun yang dapat membuat orang-orang yang datang ke sana meyakini bahwa tempat tersebut pernah dihuni."[425] Dan ketika yang masih tersisa dari reruntuhan Yerusalem dijadikan pemukiman Romawi Aelia Capitolina, tidak ada orang Yahudi yang diijinkan untuk menjejakkan kaki di sana.[424]
  12. Kesimpulan-kesimpulan mengenai Kain Kafan Turin masih terpolarisasi.[433] Menurut mantan editor Nature Philip Ball, "Adalah adil untuk mengatakan bahwa, terlepas dari beragam pengujian pada tahun 1988 yang tampaknya definitif, status Kain Kafan Turin menjadi lebih suram daripada sebelumnya. Selain itu, sifat gambar dan bagaimana terbentuknya pada kain tersebut masih sangat membingungkan".[434]

Kutipan

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  199. Elowsky, Joel C. (2007). John 11-21. Volume 4, Part 2 of Ancient Christian Commentary on Scripture. InterVarsity Press. hlm. 303. ISBN 9780830810994
  200. Binz, Stephen J. (2004). The Names of Jesus. Twenty-Third Publications. hlm. 81–82. ISBN 978-1-58595-315-8
  201. Ironside, H. A. (2006). John. Kregel Academic. hlm. 454. ISBN 978-0-8254-9619-6
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  224. In a 2011 review of the state of modern scholarship, Bart Ehrman (who is a secular agnostic) wrote: "He certainly existed, as virtually every competent scholar of antiquity, Christian or non-Christian, agrees" B. Ehrman, 2011 Forged : writing in the name of God ISBN 978-0-06-207863-6. page 285
  225. Michael Grant (a classicist) states that "In recent years, 'no serious scholar has ventured to postulate the non historicity of Jesus' or at any rate very few, and they have not succeeded in disposing of the much stronger, indeed very abundant, evidence to the contrary." in Jesus: An Historian's Review of the Gospels by Michael Grant 2004 ISBN 1-898799-88-1 page 200
  226. Amy-Jill Levine in The Historical Jesus in Context edited by Amy-Jill Levine et al. Princeton University Press ISBN 978-0-691-00992-6 page 4: "There is a consensus of sorts on a basic outline of Jesus' life. Most scholars agree that Jesus was baptized by John, debated with fellow Jews on how best to live according to God's will, engaged in healings and exorcisms, taught in parables, gathered male and female followers in Galilee, went to Jerusalem, and was crucified by Roman soldiers during the governorship of Pontius Pilate"
  227. The Quest for the Plausible Jesus: The Question of Criteria by Gerd Theissen and Dagmar Winter (Aug 30, 2002) ISBN 0-664-22537-3 page 5
  228. Jesus Research: An International Perspective (Princeton-Prague Symposia Series on the Historical Jesus) by James H. Charlesworth and Petr Pokorny (Sep 15, 2009) ISBN 0-8028-6353-1 pages 1-2
  229. Keener, Craig S. (2012). The Historical Jesus of the Gospels. William B. Eerdmans Publishing. hlm. 163. ISBN 978-0-8028-6292-1
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  234. Anderson, Paul N.; Just, Felix; Thatcher, Tom (2007). John, Jesus, and History, Volume 1: Critical Appraisals of Critical Views. Society of Biblical Lit. hlm. 131. ISBN 978-1-58983-293-0
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  240. Anderson, Paul N.; Just, Felix; Thatcher, Tom (2007). John, Jesus, and History, Volume 2. Society of Biblical Lit. hlm. 291. ISBN 978-1-58983-293-0
  241. Anderson, Paul N.; Just, Felix; Thatcher, Tom (2007). John, Jesus, and History, Volume 2. Society of Biblical Lit. hlm. 292. ISBN 978-1-58983-293-0
  242. 1 2 Funk, Robert W., Roy W. Hoover, and the Jesus Seminar. The five gospels. HarperSanFrancisco. 1993. "The Gospel of Thomas," p 471-532.
  243. Tuckett, Christopher (2001). "Sources and methods". Dalam Bockmuehl, Markus N. A. Cambridge Companion to Jesus. Cambridge University Press. hlm. 123–4. ISBN 978-0-521-79678-1. All this does at least render highly implausible any far-fetched theories that even Jesus’ very existence was a Christian invention. The fact that Jesus existed, that he was crucified under Pontius Pilate (for whatever reason) and that he had a band of followers who continued to support his cause, seems to be part of the bedrock of historical tradition. If nothing else, the non-Christian evidence can provide us with certainty on that score. 
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  270. Barnett, Paul (2002). Jesus & the Rise of Early Christianity: A History of New Testament Times. InterVarsity Press. hlm. 21. ISBN 978-0-8308-2699-5
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Referensi

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